Cadbury Canada is a front-runner in the fair trade movement. Fair trade cocoa originates from Belize, Bolivia, Cameroon, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Ghana, Nicaragua, and Peru. [To find out cocoa’s source, simply look at the back label. Fair Trade Certified products contain the label shown above.]
A second option is organic chocolate (e.g., Newman’s Organics). This is also a fairly safe choice, as organic farms have their own systems of independent monitoring that checks labor practices. Plus, cocoa beans are not grown organically in the Ivory Coast.
There’s a lot of guesstimating in this area. Here's my best effort, though, to delineate some of the “good” vs the “bad.” On the good team, I included companies that have moved toward enlightenment; they've begun socially conscious efforts.
Note also that there's plenty of slavery-free chocolate, too, that is neither Fair Trade Certified nor organic. When in doubt, avoid Hershey’s (or just don’t keep giving them your dollars), and enjoy!
Good Chocolate: Ben & Jerry's, Starbuck's, Ah!laska, Endangered Species, Ithaca, Whole Foods, Trader Joe's, Newman's Organics, Clif Bar, Guittard, Green and Black's, Mayordomo/Mexican chocolate, European chocolate, Nirvana, Rapunzel, smaller mom & pop brands, and lots more.
? Unclear - info is mixed: Nestle, Godiva (sorry Sarah!), lots more.
Finally, and thank you for sticking with me through all of this, here are some folks fighting the good fight, and my sources of this information:
Fair Trade Labeling Organization
Fair Trade Candy Blog
International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements